Wednesday, February 10, 2010

LM393 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Dual Comparator

The LM393 consists of two independent precision voltage comparators with an offset voltage specification as low as 2.0 mV max for two comparators which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power
supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. These comparators also have a unique characteristic in that the input common-mode voltage range includes ground, even though operated from a single power supply voltage.



Application areas include limit comparators, simple analog to digital converters; pulse, squarewave and time delay generators; wide range VCO; MOS clock timers; multivibrators
and high voltage digital logic gates. The LM393 series was designed to directly interface with TTL and CMOS. When operated from both plus and minus power supplies, the LM393 series will directly interface with MOS logic where their low power drain is a distinct advantage over standard comparators.

Advantages:
High precision comparators
Reduced VOS drift over temperature
Eliminates need for dual supplies
Allows sensing near ground
Compatible with all forms of logic
Power drain suitable for battery operation

Labels: , , , ,

Monday, February 8, 2010

ULN2803 Eight Darlington Array ULN2803A

The ULN2801A-ULN2805A each contain eight darlington transistors with common emitters and integral suppression diodes for inductive loads. Each darlington features a peak load current rating of 600mA (500mA continuous) and can withstand at least 50V in the off state. Outputs may be paralleled for higher current capability. Five versions are available to simplify interfacing to standard logic families : the ULN2801A is designed for general purpose applications with a current limit resistor ; the ULN2802A has a 10.5kW input resistor and zener for 14-25V PMOS ; the ULN2803A has a 2.7kW input resistor for 5V TTL and CMOS ; the ULN2804A has a 10.5kW input resistor for 6-15V CMOS and the ULN2805A is designed to sink a minimum of 350mA for standard and Schottky TTL where higher output current is required. All types are supplied in a 18-lead plastic DIP with a copper lead from and feature the convenient inputopposite-output pinout to simplify board layout.

Labels: , , ,

Thursday, February 4, 2010

XBee and XBee PRO DigiMesh 2.4 OEM RF Modules

The XBee/XBee-PRO DigiMesh 2.4 OEM RF Modules were engineered to support the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless sensor networks. The modules require minimal power and provide reliable delivery of data between remote devices.



The XBee modules us the ISM (Industrial, Scientific & Medical) 2.4 GHz frequency band

Key Features:

Long-range Data IntegrityXBee
Indoor/Urban: up to 100' (30 m)
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 300' (100m)
Transmit Power: 1 mW (0dBm)
Receiver Sensitivity: -92 dBmXBee-PRO
Indoor/Urban: up to 300' (90 m)
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 1 mile (1600m)
Transmit Power: 63mW (18dBm) EIRP
Receiver Sensitivity: -100 dBm (1% packet error rate)
RF Data Rate: 250,000 bpsAdvanced Networking & Security
Retries and Acknowledgements
Self-routing, self-healing mesh networking
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)

Serial communications:

The XBee/XBee-PRO 2.4 DigiMesh OEM RF Modules interface to a host device through a logic-level asynchronous serial port. Through its serial port, the module can communicate with any logic and voltage compatible UART; or through a level translator to any serial device (For example: Through a Digi proprietary RS-232 or USB interface board).

Labels: , , , ,

Monday, February 1, 2010

TIP31C NPN Power Transistor TIP31

The TIP31C is a base island technology NPN power transistor in TO-220 plastic package with better performances than the industry standard TIP31 that make this device suitable for audio, power linear and switching applications. The PNP type is TIP32C.




Absolute maximim ratings:

Collector-base voltage (IE = 0) 100 V
Collector-emitter voltage (IB = 0) 100 V
Emitter-base voltage (IC = 0) 5 V
Collector current 3 A
Collector peak current 5 A
Base current 1 A
Total dissipation at Tcase = 25°C
Total dissipation at Tamb = 25°C
Storage temperature -65 to 150 °C
Max. operating junction temperature 150 °C

Labels: , ,

Monday, January 18, 2010

LM7909 3-Terminal 1A Negative Voltage Regulator

The LM7909 three terminal negative regulator is available in TO-220 package and with a fixed -9V output voltage, it is useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible.
Features
• Output Current in Excess of 1A
• Internal Thermal Overload Protection
• Short Circuit Protection
• Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Compensation


Labels: , ,

Thursday, October 15, 2009

Microchip dsPIC30F1010 202X Enhanced Flash SMPS 16-Bit Digital Signal Controller

The dsPIC series of microcontrollers are very high performance and are excellent for digital signal porcessing. These devices contain extensive Digital Signal Processor (DSP) functionality within a high-performance 16-bit microcontroller (MCU) architecture.




The dsPIC30F1010/202X High-Performance Modified RISC CPU has the following specs:

• Modified Harvard architecture
• C compiler optimized instruction set architecture
• 83 base instructions with flexible addressing
modes
• 24-bit wide instructions, 16-bit wide data path
• 12 Kbytes on-chip Flash program space
• 512 bytes on-chip data RAM
• 16 x 16-bit working register array
• Up to 30 MIPS operation:
- Dual Internal RC
- 9.7 and 14.55 MHz (±1%) Industrial Temp
- 6.4 and 9.7 MHz (±1%) Extended Temp
- 32X PLL with 480 MHz VCO
- PLL inputs ±3%
- External EC clock 6.0 to 14.55 MHz
- HS Crystal mode 6.0 to 14.55 MHz
• 32 interrupt sources
• Three external interrupt sources
• 8 user-selectable priority levels for each interrupt
• 4 processor exceptions and software traps
DSP Engine Features:
• Modulo and Bit-Reversed modes
• Two 40-bit wide accumulators with optional
saturation logic
• 17-bit x 17-bit single-cycle hardware fractional/
integer multiplier
• Single-cycle Multiply-Accumulate (MAC)
operation
• 40-stage Barrel Shifter
• Dual data fetch



Labels: , , ,

Sunday, June 21, 2009

Analog Devices ADXL series Accelerometers

The Analog Devices ADXL series of Accelerometers are an amazing set of devices. As an example, the ADXL325 is a small, low power, complete 3-axis accelerometer with signal conditioned voltage outputs. The product measures acceleration with a minimum full-scale range of ±5 g. It can measure the static acceleration of gravity in tilt sensing applications, as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion, shock, or vibration.

The user selects the bandwidth of the accelerometer using the CX, CY, and CZ capacitors at the XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT pins. Bandwidths can be selected to suit the application, with a range of 0.5 Hz to 1600 Hz for X and Y axes, and a range of 0.5 Hz to 550 Hz for the Z axis. The ADXL325 is available in a small, low profile, 4 mm × 4 mm × 1.45 mm, 16-lead, plastic lead frame chip scale package (LFCSP_LQ).

Functional Block Diagram:

Labels: , , ,

Saturday, June 13, 2009

LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier

The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200.
The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage. The quiescent power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the LM386 ideal for battery operation.

Typical low part count application:


To make the LM386 a more versatile amplifier, two pins (1 and 8) are provided for gain control. With pins 1 and 8 open the 1.35 kW resistor sets the gain at 20 (26 dB). If a capacitor is put from pin 1 to 8, bypassing the 1.35 kW resistor, the gain will go up to 200 (46 dB). If a resistor is placed in series with the capacitor, the gain can be set to any value from 20 to 200. Gain control can also be done by capacitively coupling a resistor (or FET) from pin 1 to ground.

Labels: , , ,

Wednesday, June 3, 2009

Digi XBee X-CTU Manual and Utility

If you use Digi XBee modules for wireless communication, the Digi X-CTU application is a must. X-CTU is a Windows-based application provided by Digi. This program was designed to interact with the firmware files found on Digi’s RF products and to provide a simple-to-use graphical user interface to them. X-CTU is designed to function with all Windows-based computers running Microsoft Windows 98 SE and above. X-CTU can either be downloaded from Digi’s Web site or an installation CD.

The Digi X-CTU Datasheet can be downloaded here.

The Digi X-CTU application can be downloaded from Digi here.

X-CTU Screenshot:

Labels: , , ,

Thursday, May 28, 2009

XBee XBee-PRO 802.15.4 OEM RF Modules

The XBee/XBee-PRO ZB RF Modules are designed to operate within the ZigBee protocol and support the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless sensor networks. The modules require minimal power and provide reliable delivery of data between remote devices. The modules operate within the ISM 2.4 GHz frequency band and are compatible with the following:

• XBee RS-232 Adapter
• XBee RS-232 PH (Power Harvester) Adapter
• XBee RS-485 Adapter
• XBee Analog I/O Adapter
• XBee Digital I/O Adapter
• XBee Sensor Adapter
• XBee USB Adapter
• XStick
• ConnectPort X Gateways
• XBee Wall Router.

These are very powerful wireless modules that I have used extensively in projects, they are well worth talking a look at if you have not played with them in your latest wireless project.

Labels: , , , ,

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

LM7812 3-Terminal 1A Positive Voltage Regulator

The LM78XX series including the LM7812 device are three terminal positive regulators available in the TO-220 package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Features:

Output Current up to 1A
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

LM7812 Pin Assignment:


Labels: , , , ,

Monday, May 11, 2009

LM337 3-Terminal Adjustable Negative Regulators

The LM137/LM337 are adjustable 3-terminal negative voltage regulators capable of supplying in excess of −1.5A over an output voltage range of −1.2V to −37V. These regulators are exceptionally easy to apply, requiring only 2 external resistors to set the output voltage and 1 output capacitor for frequency compensation. The circuit design has been optimized for excellent regulation and low thermal transients. Further, the LM137 series features internal current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe-area compensation, making them virtually blowout-proof against overloads.

The LM137/LM337 serve a wide variety of applications including local on-card regulation, programmable-output voltage regulation or precision current regulation. The LM137/ LM337 are ideal complements to the LM117/LM317 adjustable positive regulators.

Labels: , , ,

Saturday, May 9, 2009

LM324 Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers

The LM324 series consists of four independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.

Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example, the LM124 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring the additional ±15V power supplies.

Unique Characteristics

- In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a single power supply voltage
- The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated
- The input bias current is also temperature compensated

LM324 Pinout:

Labels: , , ,

Friday, May 8, 2009

LM358 Low Power Dual Operational Amplifier

The LM358 series consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single
power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.

Application areas include transducer amplifiers, dc gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply
systems. For example, the LM158 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring the additional ±15V power supplies.

Device pinout:

Labels: , , ,

Thursday, May 7, 2009

LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier

The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200.

The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage. The quiescent power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the LM386 ideal for battery operation.

Device pinout:




Labels: , ,

Monday, March 23, 2009

Atmel ATMega169 ATMega169p

The ATmega169P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega169P achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.

A true RISC processor, the AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.

ATMega169 pinout:

Labels: , , ,

Saturday, March 14, 2009

PIC16F876 Microcontroller ( PIC16F873A , PIC16F874a, PIC16f877a)

The PIC16F873A, PIC16F874A, PIC16F876A, and PIC16F877A are high-performance RISC CPUs with the following features:

• Only 35 single-word instructions to learn
• All single-cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle
• Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input DC – 200 ns instruction cycle
• Up to 8K x 14 words of Flash Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM), Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory
• Pinout compatible to other 28-pin or 40/44-pin PIC16CXXX and PIC16FXXX microcontrollers



They also feature a 10-bit, up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D), Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter, and In-Circuit Serial Programming via two pins which can greatly save time in programming.

Overall these are a very powerful series of PIC microcontrollers for a very low price.

Labels: , ,

Friday, February 27, 2009

74LS244 Octal Tri-State Buffer

These 74LS244 family of buffers/line drivers are designed to improve both the performance and PC board density of TRI-STATE buffers/drivers employed as memory-address drivers, clock drivers, and bus-oriented transmitters/receivers. Featuring 400 mV of hysteresis at each low current PNP data line input, they provide improved noise rejection and high fanout outputs and can be used to drive terminated lines down to 133X.

I use these all the time for cleaning up noisy data and for line level voltage conversions.

Labels: , , ,

Sunday, February 22, 2009

LM339 Quad Comparator, LM339A

The LM339 Quad Comparator is an excellent component to have in your parts bin. It is extremely versatile can can be used for basic inverting and non-inverting amplifiers.
These devices consist of four independent precision voltage comparators with an offset voltage specifications as low as 2mV max for LM339A, LM239A and LM139A. All these comparators were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible.

With a wide single supply or dual supply voltage range up to +36V and TTL and CMOS compatible outputs, it can be applied to almost any circuit with few external components.

The LM339 is rated for a temperature range of 0°C, +70°C. If a wider temperature range is needed. the LM239 or LM139 can be substituted giving a maximum temperature range of -55°C, +125°C.

Labels: , , ,

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

LM7805 5V Voltage Regulator

One of the most common and useful voltage regulators ever is the LM7805. It is a versatile linear regulator where in its TO-220 package can provide up to one amp of current at 5V. The only support circuitry needing to be a couple of capacitors to prevent high frequency oscillations on the outputs.

It is an absolute necessity for any TTL logic design and a great regulated voltage source for a wide assortment of projects.

Labels: , , ,

Wednesday, February 11, 2009

LM833 Low Noise Dual Operational Amplifier

The LM883 is a dual operational amplifier with very low noise characteristics making in well suited for audio applications. It offers low voltage noise (4.5nV/√Hz) and high frequency performances (15MHz Gain Bandwidth product, 7V/μs slew rate).


Many audio applications would benefit from such excellent noise characteristics.

Labels: , ,

Saturday, January 31, 2009

74LS161 74LS163 4-bit Binary Counters

The 74ls160 family of BCD and binary counters are very useful counters. With the capability of being cascaded together you can have a very effective and simple counter of the bit length for your project. With the counter being extremely fast (up to 125Mhz) and synchronous counting with no ripple carry, it is a very effective counter.

The 74161 and 74163 are standard binary counters while the 74160 and 74162 and BCD counters.

Labels: , ,

Friday, January 30, 2009

Microchip TC1321 10bit D/A convertor

Microchip makes a very cool digital to analog convertor with 10-bit resolution, it is the TC1321. A very nice feature of the DAC is it has a simple two wire I2C interface. This makes interfacing it to other microcontrollers with I2C interfaces very simple. It is only available in 8pin SOIC and MSOP surface mount packages, so be ready for some surface mount soldering.

Labels: , ,

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

MAX232 RS-232 Driver / Receiver

The MAX232 is an essential part for anyone working with RS-232 communication. It easily converts serial level voltages to usable TTL level voltages to interface with your microcontrollers or other TTL-level serial devices.

I always have a quantity of these on hand as they seem to end up in almost every project I work on.

Labels: , ,

Pic 18F2520

The Pic18f2520 is by far one of my favorite PIC microcontrollers. The PIC 18 family has many nice features that you just don't find in the lower PIC families including PicKit II programmer support.

The PIC18F2520 is available in a 28 pin dip package (as well as QFN and SPDIP) and has many nice hardware features including:

4 Crystal modes plus RC and oscillator support, up to 40Mhz clock source.
High Current Sink/Source 25ma digital i/o.
PWM Outputs.
Built in 10 Bit A/D converters.
Two pin in circuit ICSP programming.
USART / SPI /I2C support.
32K of onboard flash.

It has capability to be programmed with C as well, with a C compiled optimized architecture. With it's versatility it is one of my favorite PICs for projects that require more i/o and larger program structures than the smaller PIC families can handle.

Labels: , ,