Part # Application Notes Power Supply And Power Management L6599 L6598 AN2450 datasheet

Part Manufacturer: ST Microelectronics

ST Microelectronics

Part Description: LLC resonant half-bridge converter design guideline


Part Details:

AN2450 Application note LLC resonant half-bridge converter design guideline Introduction The growing popularity of the LLC resonant converter in its half-bridge implementation (see Figure 1) is due to its high efficiency, low level of EMI emissions, and its ability to achieve high power density. Such features perfectly fit the power supply demand of many modern applications such as LCD and PDP TV or 80+ initiative compliant ATX silver box. One of the major difficulties that engineers are facing with this topology is the lack of information concerning the way the converter operates and, therefore, the way to design it in order to optimize its features. The purpose of this application note is to provide a detailed quantitative analysis of the steady-state operation of the topology that can be easily translated into a design procedure. Exact analysis of LLC resonant converters (see [1.] ) leads to a complex model that cannot be easily used to derive a handy design procedure. R. Steigerwald (see [2]) has described a simplified method, applicable to any resonant topology, based on the assumption that input-to-output power transfer is essentially due to the fundamental Fourier series components of currents and voltages. This is what is commonly known as the "first harmonic approximation" (FHA) technique, which enables the analysis of resonant converters by means of classical complex ac-circuit analysis. This is the approach that has been used in this paper. The same methodology has been used by Duerbaum (see [3] ) who has highlighted the peculiarities of this topology stemming from its multi-resonant nature. Although it provides an analysis useful to set up a design procedure, the quantitative aspect is not fully complete since some practical design constraints, especially those related to soft-switching, are not addressed. In (see [4] ) a design procedure that optimizes transformer s size is given but, again, many other significant aspects of the design are not considered. The application note starts with a brief summary of the first harmonic approximation approach, giving its limitations and highlighting the aspects it cannot predict. Then, the LLC resonant converter is characterized as a two-port element, considering the input impedance, and the forward transfer characteristic. The analysis of the input impedance is useful to determine a necessary condition for Power MOSFETs ZVS to occur and allows the designer to predict how conversion efficiency behaves when the load changes from the maximum to the minimum value. The forward transfer characteristic (see Figure 3) is of great importance to determine the input-to-output voltage conversion ratio and provides considerable insight into the converter s operation over the entire range of input voltage and output load. In particular, it provides a simple graphical means to find the condition for the converter to regulate the output voltage down to zero load, which is one of the main benefits of the topology as compared to the traditional series resonant converter. October 2007 Rev 5 1/32 www.st.com Contents AN2450 Contents 1 FHA circuit model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Voltage gain and input impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 ZVS constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4 Operation under overload and short-circuit condition . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5 Magnetic integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6 Design procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7 Design example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8 Electrical test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 8.1 Efficiency measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 8.2 Resonant stage operating waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 9 Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 10 Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2/32 AN2450 List of figures List of figures Figure 1. LLC resonant half-bridge converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Figure 2. FHA resonant circuit two port model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 3. Conversion ratio of LLC resonant half-bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 4.


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