The ATmega169P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega169P achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
A true RISC processor, the AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The PIC16F873A, PIC16F874A, PIC16F876A, and PIC16F877A are high-performance RISC CPUs with the following features:
• Only 35 single-word instructions to learn
• All single-cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle
• Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input DC – 200 ns instruction cycle
• Up to 8K x 14 words of Flash Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM), Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory
• Pinout compatible to other 28-pin or 40/44-pin PIC16CXXX and PIC16FXXX microcontrollers
They also feature a 10-bit, up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D), Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter, and In-Circuit Serial Programming via two pins which can greatly save time in programming.
Overall these are a very powerful series of PIC microcontrollers for a very low price.
The ULN2001, ULN2002, ULN2003 and ULN2004 are high voltage, high current darlington arrays each containing seven open collector darlington pairs with common emitters. Each channel rated at 500 mA and can withstand peak currents of 600 mA. Suppression diodes are included for inductive load driving and the inputs are pinned opposite the outputs to simplify board layout.
These components are excellent for driving any external devices from stepper motors to relays, or any device that draws more current component that any typical logic gate or microcontroller wouldn’t be able to supply.