The LM393 consists of two independent precision voltage comparators with an offset voltage specification as low as 2.0 mV max for two comparators which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power
supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. These comparators also have a unique characteristic in that the input common-mode voltage range includes ground, even though operated from a single power supply voltage.
Application areas include limit comparators, simple analog to digital converters; pulse, squarewave and time delay generators; wide range VCO; MOS clock timers; multivibrators
and high voltage digital logic gates. The LM393 series was designed to directly interface with TTL and CMOS. When operated from both plus and minus power supplies, the LM393 series will directly interface with MOS logic where their low power drain is a distinct advantage over standard comparators.
High precision comparators
Reduced VOS drift over temperature
Eliminates need for dual supplies
Allows sensing near ground
Compatible with all forms of logic
Power drain suitable for battery operation
The ULN2801A-ULN2805A each contain eight darlington transistors with common emitters and integral suppression diodes for inductive loads. Each darlington features a peak load current rating of 600mA (500mA continuous) and can withstand at least 50V in the off state. Outputs may be paralleled for higher current capability. Five versions are available to simplify interfacing to standard logic families : the ULN2801A is designed for general purpose applications with a current limit resistor ; the ULN2802A has a 10.5kW input resistor and zener for 14-25V PMOS ; the ULN2803A has a 2.7kW input resistor for 5V TTL and CMOS ; the ULN2804A has a 10.5kW input resistor for 6-15V CMOS and the ULN2805A is designed to sink a minimum of 350mA for standard and Schottky TTL where higher output current is required. All types are supplied in a 18-lead plastic DIP with a copper lead from and feature the convenient inputopposite-output pinout to simplify board layout.
The XBee/XBee-PRO DigiMesh 2.4 OEM RF Modules were engineered to support the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless sensor networks. The modules require minimal power and provide reliable delivery of data between remote devices.
The XBee modules us the ISM (Industrial, Scientific & Medical) 2.4 GHz frequency band
Long-range Data IntegrityXBee
Indoor/Urban: up to 100′ (30 m)
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 300′ (100m)
Transmit Power: 1 mW (0dBm)
Receiver Sensitivity: -92 dBmXBee-PRO
Indoor/Urban: up to 300′ (90 m)
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 1 mile (1600m)
Transmit Power: 63mW (18dBm) EIRP
Receiver Sensitivity: -100 dBm (1% packet error rate)
RF Data Rate: 250,000 bpsAdvanced Networking & Security
Retries and Acknowledgements
Self-routing, self-healing mesh networking
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
The XBee/XBee-PRO 2.4 DigiMesh OEM RF Modules interface to a host device through a logic-level asynchronous serial port. Through its serial port, the module can communicate with any logic and voltage compatible UART; or through a level translator to any serial device (For example: Through a Digi proprietary RS-232 or USB interface board).
is a base island technology NPN power transistor
in TO-220 plastic package with better performances than the industry standard TIP31
that make this device suitable for audio, power linear and switching applications. The PNP type is TIP32C.
Absolute maximim ratings:
Collector-base voltage (IE = 0) 100 V
Collector-emitter voltage (IB = 0) 100 V
Emitter-base voltage (IC = 0) 5 V
Collector current 3 A
Collector peak current 5 A
Base current 1 A
Total dissipation at Tcase = 25°C
Total dissipation at Tamb = 25°C
Storage temperature -65 to 150 °C
Max. operating junction temperature 150 °C
three terminal negative regulator is available in TO-220 package and with a fixed -9V output voltage, it is useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible.
• Output Current in Excess of 1A
• Internal Thermal Overload Protection
• Short Circuit Protection
• Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Compensation
The dsPIC series of microcontrollers are very high performance and are excellent for digital signal porcessing. These devices contain extensive Digital Signal Processor (DSP) functionality within a high-performance 16-bit microcontroller (MCU) architecture.
• Modified Harvard architecture
• C compiler optimized instruction set architecture
• 83 base instructions with flexible addressing
• 24-bit wide instructions, 16-bit wide data path
• 12 Kbytes on-chip Flash program space
• 512 bytes on-chip data RAM
• 16 x 16-bit working register array
• Up to 30 MIPS operation:
- Dual Internal RC
- 9.7 and 14.55 MHz (±1%) Industrial Temp
- 6.4 and 9.7 MHz (±1%) Extended Temp
- 32X PLL with 480 MHz VCO
- PLL inputs ±3%
- External EC clock 6.0 to 14.55 MHz
- HS Crystal mode 6.0 to 14.55 MHz
• 32 interrupt sources
• Three external interrupt sources
• 8 user-selectable priority levels for each interrupt
• 4 processor exceptions and software traps
DSP Engine Features:
• Modulo and Bit-Reversed modes
• Two 40-bit wide accumulators with optional
• 17-bit x 17-bit single-cycle hardware fractional/
• Single-cycle Multiply-Accumulate (MAC)
• 40-stage Barrel Shifter
• Dual data fetch
The Analog Devices ADXL series of Accelerometers are an amazing set of devices. As an example, the ADXL325 is a small, low power, complete 3-axis accelerometer with signal conditioned voltage outputs. The product measures acceleration with a minimum full-scale range of ±5 g. It can measure the static acceleration of gravity in tilt sensing applications, as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion, shock, or vibration.
The user selects the bandwidth of the accelerometer using the CX, CY, and CZ capacitors at the XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT pins. Bandwidths can be selected to suit the application, with a range of 0.5 Hz to 1600 Hz for X and Y axes, and a range of 0.5 Hz to 550 Hz for the Z axis. The ADXL325 is available in a small, low profile, 4 mm × 4 mm × 1.45 mm, 16-lead, plastic lead frame chip scale package (LFCSP_LQ).
Functional Block Diagram:
The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200.
The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage. The quiescent power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the LM386 ideal for battery operation.
Typical low part count application:
To make the LM386 a more versatile amplifier, two pins (1 and are provided for gain control. With pins 1 and 8 open the 1.35 kW resistor sets the gain at 20 (26 dB). If a capacitor is put from pin 1 to 8, bypassing the 1.35 kW resistor, the gain will go up to 200 (46 dB). If a resistor is placed in series with the capacitor, the gain can be set to any value from 20 to 200. Gain control can also be done by capacitively coupling a resistor (or FET) from pin 1 to ground.
If you use Digi XBee modules for wireless communication, the Digi X-CTU application is a must. X-CTU is a Windows-based application provided by Digi. This program was designed to interact with the firmware files found on Digi’s RF products and to provide a simple-to-use graphical user interface to them. X-CTU is designed to function with all Windows-based computers running Microsoft Windows 98 SE and above. X-CTU can either be downloaded from Digi’s Web site or an installation CD.
The Digi X-CTU Datasheet can be downloaded here.
The Digi X-CTU application can be downloaded from Digi here.
The XBee/XBee-PRO ZB RF Modules are designed to operate within the ZigBee protocol and support the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless sensor networks. The modules require minimal power and provide reliable delivery of data between remote devices. The modules operate within the ISM 2.4 GHz frequency band and are compatible with the following:
• XBee RS-232 Adapter
• XBee RS-232 PH (Power Harvester) Adapter
• XBee RS-485 Adapter
• XBee Analog I/O Adapter
• XBee Digital I/O Adapter
• XBee Sensor Adapter
• XBee USB Adapter
• ConnectPort X Gateways
• XBee Wall Router.
These are very powerful wireless modules that I have used extensively in projects, they are well worth talking a look at if you have not played with them in your latest wireless project.